## P/E and P/B

08 Aug

The P/E ratio is a financial indicator that measures the relative value of a stock by comparing the current market price to earnings per share (EPS).

Simply put, the P/E ratio is a common indicator used to evaluate whether a stock is overvalued or undervalued.

The formula for the P/E ratio is simple: P/E ratio = Stock Price / Earnings Per Share, or P/E ratio = Market Value of Company / Net Profit of Company

For example:

Now we can calculate the P/E ratio of Company A. According to the formula of P/E ratio, P/E ratio = \$10 billion (market value of company) / \$1 billion (net profit of company) = 10.

This means Company A's P/E ratio is 10. In other words, you have to pay 10 times the price to get \$1 of net profit for the company.

Through this example, you can better understand the concept of the P/E ratio. Because a lower P/E ratio means you can buy \$1 of the company's net profit at a lower price, suggesting the company's stock may be undervalued. And a higher P/E ratio means you have to pay a higher price for the same net profit, suggesting the company's stock may be overvalued.

A higher P/E ratio means investors are willing to pay a premium for the company's earnings, indicating an optimistic outlook for its future. In contrast, a lower P/E ratio may indicate the stock is undervalued, providing an opportunity for investors.

However, it should be noted that the P/E ratio alone should not be the only basis for investment decisions and should be combined with other fundamental and qualitative analyses.

For example, we just said that a higher P/E ratio may mean the market has higher expectations for the company, but if these expectations cannot be met, it also brings higher risks. In contrast, a lower P/E ratio may indicate lower market expectations for the company, but it may also imply potential issues or uncertainties.

In addition, the P/E ratio may differ significantly between different industries. Some industries, such as technology or biotechnology, are considered to have higher P/E ratios due to their potential for rapid growth. In contrast, utilities or consumer goods industries tend to have lower P/E ratios because they are seen as more stable and predictable.

In summary, the P/E ratio is widely used in stock investing to evaluate the relative value of a company's stock. It can reflect market sentiment, growth expectations, and potential opportunities and risks. However, when making investment decisions, the P/E ratio should be used in combination with other analytical factors.

The P/B ratio, like the P/E ratio, is an indicator frequently used in stock investing that provides important information about a company's valuation and investment potential.

The formula for the P/B ratio is simple: P/B ratio = Stock Price / Book Value Per Share, or Market Value / Net Assets.

Where market value refers to the total market value of the company, and net assets refer to the balance remaining after deducting liabilities from assets.

The result of the P/B ratio calculation can tell us the value of the company's net assets corresponding to each share of investment in the market.

For example:

Suppose a company has a market value of \$1 billion and net assets of \$500 million. Then the company's P/B ratio is 2 (\$1 billion / \$500 million = 2). This means that for every \$1 investors spend buying the company's stock, they get \$2 in net asset value.

In general, a lower P/B ratio may indicate that the company's stock price is relatively cheap, allowing investors to purchase more net asset value at a lower price. However, a lower P/B ratio may also mean that the market is cautious about the company's outlook or that there are other risk factors.

On the other hand, a higher P/B ratio may indicate that the market is very optimistic about the company's outlook and willing to pay a higher price for each unit of net assets. This could be because the company has excellent profitability, high growth potential, or an excellent management team. However, a high P/B ratio may also imply that the stock is highly overvalued, in which case you need to carefully evaluate the risks and potential returns.

One more point: the P/B ratio levels may differ substantially between industries, so we should compare the P/B ratio with other companies in the same industry for a more accurate assessment.

Of course, valuation is only part of the reference to investment. There are many other factors we can consider together, such as the company's financial stability, growth potential, competitive advantages, etc.

In summary, the P/B ratio is an important indicator that measures the relationship between a company's stock price and net assets. You need to pay attention to the level of P/B ratio, industry comparisons and other relevant factors to assist in investment decisions.